Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam Tutorial: Configuring PPP Callback

You may run into situations where a router in a remote location needs to dial in to a central router, but the toll charges are much higher if the remote router makes the call. This scenario is perfect for PPP Callback, where the callback client places a call to a callback server, authentication takes place, and the server then hangs up on the client! This ensures that the client isn’t charged for the call. The server then calls the client back.

In the following example, R2 has been configured as the client and R1 is the callback server. Let’s look at both configurations and the unique commands PPP Callback requires.

Client:

username R1 password CCIE

interface BRI0

ip address 172.12.12.2 255.255.255.0

encapsulation ppp

dialer map ip 172.12.12.1 name R1 broadcast 5557777

dialer-group 1

isdn switch-type basic-ni

ppp callback request

ppp authentication chap

Most of that configuration will look familiar to you, but the ppp callback request command might not. This command enables the BRI interface to request the callback.

Simple enough, right? The PPP Callback Server config requires more configuration and an additional map-class as well.

Server:

username R2 password CCIE
interface BRI0

ip address 172.12.12.1 255.255.255.0

encapsulation ppp

dialer callback-secure

dialer map ip 172.12.12.2 name R2 class CALL_R2_BACK broadcast 5558888

dialer-group 1

isdn switch-type basic-ni

ppp callback accept

ppp authentication chap

map-class dialer CALL_R2_BACK

dialer callback-server username

Examining the PPP Callback Server command from the top down…

dialer callback-secure enables security on the callback. If the remote router cannot be authenticated for callback, the incoming call will be disconnected.

The dialer map statement now calls the class CALL_R2_BACK, shown at the bottom of the config excerpt.

ppp callback accept enables PPP callback on this router.

dialer callback-server username tells the callback server that the device referenced in the dialer map statement is a callback client.

The only way to find out if the config works is to test it, so let’s send a ping from R2 to R1 and see if the callback takes place.

R2#ping 172.12.12.1

Type escape sequence to abort.

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.12.12.1, timeout is 2 seconds:

02:45:42: BR0 DDR: Dialing cause ip (s=172.12.12.2, d=172.12.12.1)

02:45:42: BR0 DDR: Attempting to dial 5557777

02:45:42: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to up

02:45:42: BR0:1 DDR: Callback negotiated – Disconnecting now

02:45:42: BR0:1 DDR: disconnecting call

02:45:42: %ISDN-6-CONNECT: Interface BRI0:1 is now connected to 5557777 R1

02:45:42: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to down

02:45:42: DDR: Callback client for R1 5557777 created

02:45:42: BR0:1 DDR: disconnecting call…..

Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)

R2#

02:45:57: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to up

R2#

02:45:57: BR0:1 DDR: Callback received from R1 5557777

02:45:57: DDR: Freeing callback to R1 5557777

02:45:57: BR0:1 DDR: dialer protocol up

02:45:58: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface BRI0:1, changed state to up

The callback was successfully negotiated, and the call then disconnected. R1 then called R2 back, and show dialer on R1 confirms the purpose of the call.

R1#show dialer

BRI0 – dialer type = ISDN

Dial String Successes Failures Last DNIS Last status

5558888 2 4 00:00:20 successful

0 incoming call(s) have been screened.

0 incoming call(s) rejected for callback.

BRI0:1 – dialer type = ISDN

Idle timer (120 secs), Fast idle timer (20 secs)

Wait for carrier (30 secs), Re-enable (15 secs)

Dialer state is data link layer up

Dial reason: Callback return call

Time until disconnect 99 secs

Connected to 5558888 (R2)

Pretty cool! PPP Callback isn’t just important for passing your CCNA and CCNP exams – in circumstances such as shown in this example, it can save your organization quite a bit of money!

Insurance Continuing Education Varies by State

Almost every profession requires some sort of continuing education to be completed by any individual licensed in that industry. For instance, insurance, real estate, legal, and mortgage are all industries that require their agents to complete a required number of continuing education courses every 1-2 years. Typically, education can be completed either online or in a classroom. You must check with your state to determine what type of continuing education is required, how many credit hours are required, and by what date they must be completed by.

Today we are going to talk about some of the different state requirements in the insurance industry. Each state is governed by a different accrediting agency. Usually the department of insurance in each state regulates the insurance and financial industry. So the Ohio Department of Insurance would regulate the rules and regulations one must abide by in the state of Ohio. So if a licensed insurance agent living in Ohio wants to know how many credit hours he needs to fulfill his requirements, the Ohio Department of Insurance is who he would need to contact.

Each state is a little different. Some require an agent to complete their courses in a classroom while other states allow online courses. The credit requirement and compliance deadline also differ. California for example, requires their insurance agents to complete their continuing education every two years by the end of the month they were licensed. While Florida on the other hand requires their agent’s continuing education to be completed by the end of their birth month every two years. It is very important to stay current with your education. Each state can and will impose some type fine if you are late completing your continuing education.

The other major differences between states are the courses an agent must take. Ohio insurance for example, requires all of their insurance agents to complete at least three hours of ethics either online or in a classroom. On the other hand, California requires their agents to take at least four hours in ethics, four hours in annuities, and eight hours in long term care. As you can see these are very different requirements even though the professionals in these states hold the same type of license. To make sure you stay in compliance, contact your department of insurance. They can cover exactly what you need to do on a yearly or bi-yearly basis. The department of insurance can also go over what you need to do if you are late on completing your continuing education requirements.

Shopping for Coach Handbags & Accessories

Are you shopping for a gift for a female friend or loved one? Well, if you’ve got a bit of cash to spend, you would probably do well to look for gifts in the fashion area, and there are few things that are more fashionable than an authentic and genuine Coach handbag.

Coach handbags are a very coveted and desired item. Why are they so popular? Well, Coach is an established brand name manufacturer of fine handbags, luggage, and carrying accessories. Coach products run a little on the pricier side, but there are many places where you could purchase them for a slightly discounted price. Before we discuss where you can go to for Coach deals, let’s talk about the history of Coach products.

They have been around for more than half a century in the United States of America. The legacy of Coach all started in Manhattan, New York. I bet you wouldn’t have the least idea of what the object was that was the inspiration of the first Coach handbag. Well, believe it or not, it was a leather baseball catcher’s glove or mitten. The craftsmanship of earlier leather baseball gloves does have a resemblance of Coach leather handbags in its grain and color and stitching. The next time you get a chance to examine an authentic Coach leather handbag or other type of accessory, try examining it to see the similarities between it and a leather baseball glove.

Well, now that you know a part of the history of Coach, where can you go to purchase these great designer accessories for less? Well, there are a few good in-store sales at certain times of the year, however there is a place that you can access from the comfort of your own home that can lead the way to great deals. The answer is the internet. Many online stores offer competitive pricing on a wide range of products including Coach handbags. If you would like to find great deals, try doing a Google search for the specific model or type you are looking for.

Career Advice – Career Change Over 40 – Is it Too Late?

Is it too late to make a career change over 40? There was a time when this might have been true and anyone giving career advice would have told you to stay where you were. But when it comes to jobs, things have changed dramatically for everyone and although some employers are a bit slow to catch on, the smart ones are employing older people.

Why is so much changing? You already know about the economy and the effect that is having on jobs. Another important factor is the changing population. More people are living longer and many people are having fewer children. So this means that in the majority of western countries, the population is aging. And, significantly, there aren’t as many young people to take their place in the labor market.

So what does this mean for you? If you are 40 or over, the first thing you need to realize is that your working life is likely to be a bit longer than you expected. But you had probably already figured that one out! You know you won’t be retiring any time soon.

With plenty of people living to 100 these days, that means around 35 or 40 years of life past the usual retirement age. And unless you have a private income, a huge pension fund or your children become incredibly wealthy, that means you will have to support yourself for all those extra years.

This information enables you to view career change in an entirely new light. If you are 40 now and are going to have to work until you are 80, you have what used to be an entire working life still ahead of you.

There are plenty of positive things about changing career in midlife. For one thing, you have around 20 years of work experience, which has taught you plenty. You have skills which can be used in many different work situations and you know what you are good at and what you enjoy doing.

So it will be easier for you to choose a new career based on interests and aptitudes. When you were in your twenties, a certain career may have held an appeal for you, but you didn’t have the experience to back up your choice. Now you do. There are also challenges involved in changing career at 40 or over.

You may need to go back to college which can be expensive and if you have been away from studying for a long time, you might wonder how you will cope. And of course you could find yourself in a classroom with a bunch of 18 year olds. But you probably won’t be the only mature student in the class and you will find that colleges are well equipped for dealing with students who have been away from education for some time.

3 Tips on How to Learn Spanish Rapidly

Are you looking for some tips on how to learn Spanish rapidly? That’s great, because this article is for you! I’m going to show you three simple tips that will definitely help you to learn Spanish more quickly than you ever thought possible. Here they are!

1. Make it a priority

If you want to learn Spanish quickly, you need to make it a priority. This means that you will practice every single day (yes, that’s right!) and that you will be very concentrated while learning. Yes, no Facebook, no Gmail, no instant messenger, nada. Do you want to achieve your goal? Then make it a priority!

2. Interact with native speakers right from the beginning

Many people say that they “aren’t ready to speak Spanish”. Ready for what? It’s a poor excuse. You can interact with native speakers right from the beginning – simply by participating in online communities (for example message boards) or speaking with Spanish speakers who want to learn your native language. Do it right from the beginning!

3. Don’t learn things that aren’t useful

Many people think that they should learn everything – all grammar, every word, every phrase, everything. Sorry, but it’s impossible. Even native speakers make mistakes.

So what should you do? You should learn the most important and the most useful things. Do you speak about architecture in your native language? If not, don’t learn architecture vocabulary. Do you need to know how to say “giraffe”? If not, don’t learn it. You can always ask someone or look it up in a dictionary.

That’s it – three tips on how to learn Spanish rapidly. Keep in mind that they will only work if you put them to use. So, what are you waiting for?

Web Writing: 3 Easy Ways to Get Clients by Becoming Known

Every Web writer needs writing jobs. However, for many writers, getting those jobs is more frustrating than it needs to be. You can save yourself the trouble of constantly hunting for new clients when you become known.

When I start working with a writing coaching student, I often ask: “How many people know that you write for money?”

It always shocks the writer when he realizes that he’s keeping his profession a secret. This isn’t good strategy. The more people who know you write, the more can hire you. Common sense, right?

Therefore, the first thing you need to do to get more clients, is to let your circle of acquaintances know that you’re open to any and all Web writing jobs that they can find for you.

Once you’ve done that, you can widen the circle. The first way to do that is to start introducing yourself to those people who can hire you.

1. Introduce Yourself: Say Hello to Prospects

Remember, the more people who know you write for the Web, the better. Start introducing yourself around.

Use email. If you’re braver, pick up the phone. Either works.

Here’s a little message you can send out to agencies, as well as individual prospects:

“Hi ___ (whoever)”

“My name is ________. I’ve recently set up shop as a Web writer… ” Etc.

Your message doesn’t need to be long. In fact, the shorter the better. Close your message with: “I’ll call you within the next week or so, to discuss your needs for Web content.”

2. Become Visible: Clients Need to Know and Trust You

Once you’ve started introducing yourself, focus on building your visibility. Hunting for Web writing jobs is a pain. You want clients to contact you.

Create a blog, and use social media marketing, as well as content marketing, to build your visibility. You’ll be doing this for your clients, so you need to do it for yourself, as well.

If you’re having a “yes, but… ” moment, and think that you can weasel out of this, think again. In Web writing, being visible is essential. Whenever someone types your name into the Google search query box, there should be many references to your name.

3. Use Blogs and Social Media to Best Effect

In addition to using blogs and social media to build your name and get known, there’s another reason for using them, and it’s this: to educate both your clients, and your prospects.

Few of your clients know much about how the Web works, and how it can help their business. You need to educate them. Rather than educating them one-on-one, which takes time, educate en masse.

Education is a form of content marketing, and it works.

So there you have it; three easy ways to get Web writing clients by becoming known. Not only are these methods easy, they’re fun, too.

Lionel Trains for Sale

One of the most popular Lionel trains for sale amongst all railroad enthusiasts is the Polar Express train set at the O gauge. Its popularity has been further enhanced by appearing in the cola advertisements which feature Santa Claus. This enables children especially to recognize it from a crowd of train models and pick it even if the connection is only subconscious. However the Polar Express is one of the more expensive train models on the market, it does depend which gauge you buy but the O gauge can set you back over $200 for only one model. This can be a problem for some of you if a small budget is all you have.

Where to find Lionel trains for sale

The best location for Lionel trains on sale would be eBay or Amazon. This is because you can buy them second hand from people where they do not really know it true value and are looking to sell it cheap for some quick cash. In such deals you can usually get free track and scenery such as building, people and carriages added into the set. They do not even have to be second hand, as some people might be selling them as unwanted present or unused items. Now you might see how this would be the number 1 place to look for sales and bargains of Lionel trains.

However, you need to examine the product to ensure its quality. My suggestion would be to check the locomotive die cast metal framework and subtle features, then set up a basic bit of track such as an oval shape and see if the train can run a full power for a reasonable period of time. A powerful motor that is maintenance free is what all Lionel train sets should have as it is one of the best brands around along with others such as Bachmann and Hornby. However when testing the power output of any model train do make sure that it is fully charged if it applicable as otherwise you might be running a test that is not fair from the start, consult the instruction manual if you have any problems with this stage.

Attention to detail makes for visually stunning railroading

Lionel is a model train company that prides itself on creating products with the greatest of attention to detail. This is anything from the little figures placed around the scenery or the framework of the die cast metal. One of their great strengths is including all the extra components in a box set that a collector might find useful. A typical box set would include 2 coach passenger cars, a coal tender, multiple straight sections of track, a transformer, 8 curved sections of track, figurines, bottled smoke, power terminal, locomotive and very detailed instruction manual.

Postwar Lionel soviet trains

Railroad enthusiasts who like to make more historically orientated themes will surely make sue of the postwar Lionel soviet trains. These model are very unique in how they visually add to the character of the overall layout. They are especially very compatible with winter and snow themes. One thing to note is that as they undergo paint loss it seems to make the overall design to look more authentic, this does however depend on the type of paint that was used on the body of the soviet locomotive.

5 Tips to Being Successful With Your Spanish Language Course

Spanish language courses come in all different packages. There are different approaches to learning a new language and there are different Spanish language courses designed for different types of learners. There are some constants that are the same for every language learner. Here are 5 things that will help you be successful with your Spanish language course.

#1 Commitment: You can have a $500 Spanish language course or a $5 one but, if you are not truly committed to learning the language you will not be successful. Learning a new language is hard. You have to focus and decide that you are going to do what it takes to get through those moments when you are frustrated or confused.

#2 Practice: With our world becoming smaller and smaller it is not that difficult to find a partner that you can practice your Spanish with. When you are working through your Spanish language course you may want to consider finding someone who you can actually have a conversation with. Try to find someone who is learning English and you can work with each other to correct your mistakes. This will jump start your language learning and ensure that your pronunciation is correct with someone whom you don’t have to feel intimidated.

#3 Don’t skip the basics: Take the time to learn the basics through your Spanish language course. In many parts of the US you may already hear Spanish being spoken around you and you may already know some of the language already. Don’t confuse this with the ability to skip over the basics. The basics are the foundation of the language and will help you to determine when verbs are irregular or other special circumstances where Spanish can be confusing.

#4 Watch TV: If you have basic cable, chances are that you have at least 1 Spanish channel. To supplement your Spanish language course you can commit to watching 30 minutes of news in Spanish. You may find it very interesting to compare and contrast the news that you hear on US channels and Spanish channels. It is a great opportunity to understand the culture better as well as immerse yourself in the language.

#5 Have Fun: If your language course doesn’t already include it, find some games that you can play in Spanish. This is a low pressure, fun way to practice the language and it helps to reconfirm in your mind the things that you have already learned. Make sure that your learning has some visual aspect to it to engage both you left and right brains.

People take Spanish language courses for several reasons. Some want to travel to Spanish speaking countries, others need to learn the language to further their career, still others just want to be able to communicate with Spanish speakers. What ever the case, be sure that the Spanish course that you are using matches your learning style. If there are aspects of the course that are lacking, use some of the tools listed above to ensure success and supplement your Spanish language course.

Online College Degree Application Tips

“So it’s that time of the year when those of you…applying to B-school [business school] must be working furiously trying to put together your application package…Don’t sweat! Applying to a B-school…is a great roller-coaster ride. “The sooner one learns to relax,… the sooner one can begin to enjoy it, and…do better justice to it.” This quote may be found at Businessweek posted on Jan. 7, 2007 by Vivek Bhatnagar in the MBA Journals, “From India to Octopus’ Garden.”

The above quote applies to all applications to online college degree programs, not just to business school applications. Below are some of the requirements for applying to online colleges.

Prerequisites

If you are interested in online education, there may be some prerequisites required for the online degree program you choose. The best way to find out if prerequisites are required and which ones are needed is to check the online admissions pages of the college. Prerequisites will vary.

For an associate’s degree, you will need:

* a high school diploma or its equivalent or

* have a job, be at least 18 years old, and have Internet access.

* For some majors, such as English and mathematics, you may need to pass basic
competency English and mathematics tests or take prerequisite courses.

For a bachelor’s degree program, you will need:

* a high school diploma or its equivalent

* or an associate’s degree.

* For some majors, such as English and mathematics, you may need to pass basic
competency English and mathematics tests or take prerequisite courses.

To join a master’s program, you need:

* a bachelor’s degree from a college that is, at minimum, regionally accredited

* a 2.5 to 3.0 grade point average (GPA)

* either the Graduate Record Exam (GRE), the Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT), or the Miller Analogies Test (MAT).

For certification programs, you may need:

* a job in the field of the certification.

(These facts may be found at: “Prerequisites for Enrolling in an Online College” by Vicky Phillips, Published on Wednesday, 9th of August, 2006 on: http://oedb.org/library and on: http://www.geteducated.com)

The College Application

To apply to an online college, you will need to provide your high school diploma or equivalent, all college transcripts, results of any tests that are required, and, possibly, your birth certificate. You may have to take some of the tests mentioned above. The GRE tests verbal and quantitative skills: vocabulary, reading comprehension, and math, including statistics and algebra.

The Miller Analogies Test (MAT) is math free. It tests your ability to think comparatively, such as “Cat is to dog as kitten is to puppy.” The MAT is often required by graduate schools in education, human resources, library science and the social sciences. Graduate schools in business or management often require the GMAT. The GMAT does not test your knowledge of management or business. It tests verbal skills, mathematical knowledge (through calculus), and writing aptitude.

If the college you are interested in is accredited, it will accept course credit earned at other colleges. You will fill out paperwork and provide transcripts of the classes you have taken. Some online colleges give course credit for work experience; you may have to take a test to show how much you learned. Usually the application for an online college can be completed over the Internet.

When you apply, you may meet with an advisor to help you in deciding which program to enroll in, how to apply for financial assistance, and answer your questions. Online degree programs require internet access. For that reason, the college may require you to have certain hardware and software programs. Computer upgrades may be needed to meet course requirements, for example, additional memory needed. Most online colleges require computers that are PCs rather than Apple Macintosh computers.

For online degree applications, put together needed materials, fulfill test requirements, and complete an application. Confer with an advisor. Check to make sure you have the required computer capabilities. After application approval, you’ll be on your way!

Web Writing: 3 Easy Ways to Get Clients by Becoming Known

Every Web writer needs writing jobs. However, for many writers, getting those jobs is more frustrating than it needs to be. You can save yourself the trouble of constantly hunting for new clients when you become known.

When I start working with a writing coaching student, I often ask: “How many people know that you write for money?”

It always shocks the writer when he realizes that he’s keeping his profession a secret. This isn’t good strategy. The more people who know you write, the more can hire you. Common sense, right?

Therefore, the first thing you need to do to get more clients, is to let your circle of acquaintances know that you’re open to any and all Web writing jobs that they can find for you.

Once you’ve done that, you can widen the circle. The first way to do that is to start introducing yourself to those people who can hire you.

1. Introduce Yourself: Say Hello to Prospects

Remember, the more people who know you write for the Web, the better. Start introducing yourself around.

Use email. If you’re braver, pick up the phone. Either works.

Here’s a little message you can send out to agencies, as well as individual prospects:

“Hi ___ (whoever)”

“My name is ________. I’ve recently set up shop as a Web writer… ” Etc.

Your message doesn’t need to be long. In fact, the shorter the better. Close your message with: “I’ll call you within the next week or so, to discuss your needs for Web content.”

2. Become Visible: Clients Need to Know and Trust You

Once you’ve started introducing yourself, focus on building your visibility. Hunting for Web writing jobs is a pain. You want clients to contact you.

Create a blog, and use social media marketing, as well as content marketing, to build your visibility. You’ll be doing this for your clients, so you need to do it for yourself, as well.

If you’re having a “yes, but… ” moment, and think that you can weasel out of this, think again. In Web writing, being visible is essential. Whenever someone types your name into the Google search query box, there should be many references to your name.

3. Use Blogs and Social Media to Best Effect

In addition to using blogs and social media to build your name and get known, there’s another reason for using them, and it’s this: to educate both your clients, and your prospects.

Few of your clients know much about how the Web works, and how it can help their business. You need to educate them. Rather than educating them one-on-one, which takes time, educate en masse.

Education is a form of content marketing, and it works.

So there you have it; three easy ways to get Web writing clients by becoming known. Not only are these methods easy, they’re fun, too.